Nightshade Plants as Spiritual Aides: In Theory & Practice

Nightshade Plants as Spiritual Aides: In Theory & Practice

This post has been long overdue as it is my hope to clear up any confusion, misunderstandings, and misnomers about how these plants as spiritual aides are supposed to work in any spiritual work/experience (astral travel, clairvoyance, etc.) My intention is to give you the most accurate picture of using these plants in the way I myself and others with experience, use and understand them.

Nightshade ointmentAlthough they can be utilized for other areas such as an analgesic, an aphrodisiac, or an anxiolytic, etc. I would say the majority of people that buy nightshade ointments or from me, buy them for aide in spiritual applications. So that will be the majority of focus here.

Some will surely disappoint themselves to put an expectation on these plants for which they are not totally responsible for. Some will lose the anxiolytic/analgesic effects if used repeatedly over and over again without a break in between as the more consecutive days it is used the more tolerance soars exponentially.

Some will be disappointed to expect a ‘high’ or ‘trip’ from these products when that was not really the mechanism to be used in bringing on the benefits in the astral realms. There are subtle psychoactive effects that help with various spiritual practices but the ointments will not make you trip. I use a fairly decent amount of plant matter in all my recipes and use techniques to draw the most out of them, but even still it is highly unlikely to make you hallucinate. They can make you more relaxed and calm, and can also be in some ways stimulating.

Some will expect to have the skills of an experienced shaman or spiritual adept from using  the ointments without any practice or experience navigating in the astral realms before this. It would be quite a nice reality if all that was true. But that’s just not the way these plants work. It will not carry the experience. They will however, aide in the skills you do possess and help you to reach some of those you are still practicing to reach. It is best to use them sparingly, or at least take a few days rest in between each time.Crazy Kieri Ointment

Although they have been used in hallucinogenic doses by experienced shaman, it usually won’t bring on a very useful experience unless you have considerable practice and understanding of the astral/spiritual realms and how to operate in them, especially while in a state like that. The shaman and spiritual adepts who used these plants in that context already had fairly exceptional skills in meditation, lucid dreaming, translating visionary experience, clairvoyance,  and so on. It was meant to aide the practitioner to better use the abilities they already had or reach the ones they were currently within reach of. Its not recommended that anyone use hallucinogenic doses unless you are highly experienced, and even then, would do so with extreme caution.

One thing I have learned in my experience with these plants is that you have to rid yourself of building up all these specific expectations and let the spirit realm open up to you. When the plant is pressed upon with demanding expectations, I’ve noticed it will just close the doors. This happens in times where you’re trying to command the plant to live up to your expectations of what you want to happen. From my experience this always results in a negative effect or an undesirable outcome. I have learned that she does not respond well to this and many times if there is a response to this it will be in a nasty way.

The ones that learn from this lesson will keep going, killing this pretext of expectation will serve you well. You will gain good insight and for that knowledge will push you further into the mysteries of this plant and its being. Those that don’t heed to this lesson will either walk away or keep applying the same approach with minimal results. But I hope you will move beyond this to persist and continue, because it is worthwhile.

Sacred Datura discolor

This is just one of many tests I have learned within the teachings of this plant.

Then there will be these surprise experiences when you get much more than you bargained for. She likes to remain unpredictable and uncontrollable- she likes to control the rules and not the other way around. She does not like to be confined or controlled. I’ve mentioned this nature about her in previous posts. It lies at the core of this plant’s personality. But I will elaborate more. This plant loves to put the character of the spiritual apprentice to the test and see what you’re made of, which also helps you to see what you’re made of. Do you catch on quickly and learn to adapt to new ways and paradigms or do you fall into the stagnancy of stubborn refusal and unwillingness to change?

Ever since I started working with this plant I’ve experienced many things, some good, some bad. But the drawbacks never stopped me from moving forward on the quest of knowledge and apprenticeship in this plant’s teachings. Because I was learning from the plant and not the plant learning from me, I had to get over all the expectations I had built in the initial stages. I hope you will do the same and pursue deeper into it’s lessons. Working with this plant requires a lot of work on you, and that’s not always a desirable place to be. But you really can’t expect to get far in life unless you start being honest with yourself and making the work more important than the comfort you tend to get accustomed to. This path is just one avenue of which there are many and may not be for everyone.

Tropane Alkaloids in Modern Medicine
A Gift of the Gods?

I would say its a path that a very small handful will truly be called to. Because not a whole lot of people care enough to search deeply into it. But I hope you will.

It is all about adaptability, change within much more than without. You are shaping reality and shifting the self to be more adaptable to align yourself to the world outside of you, since that is the world we are all forced to operate within at some cohesive level. First comes the change inside of you, and that is applied to the outside you exist in. What good is any work if it does not carry any practical applications for this world? Otherwise it would just be more like an escape.

Within all times and places there are core elements of being, some might call this timeless wisdom, something that remains true in all times, all places, and in all situations. Teachings or laws that operate in this physical/mental continuum and never change. They govern the laws of man indefinitely as we are always bound to them. And if we are not in line with those laws we will experience being weighed down by them. This is called Natural Law. There are many techniques and countless books written on it.

Spiritual tools or aides are never really any useful unless we use them to spark the motivation within us, towards a change internally and that practice is equally applied externally in the life we lead in physical reality, the world we use to grow in. Its kind of like the way an aphrodisiac is meant to fuel the condition or arousal within you to make all the necessary moves forward but not responsible to bring the experience in and of itself.

This is about learning how to get the subconscious mind to work in harmony with the conscious mind to affect change. Along the subconscious mind there is a connection to a vast ocean of other subconscious minds and energies that form a vast, infinite ocean of consciousness. This you could call the astral realm, the spirit world, etc. There is some degree of socializing in that world as you do in this one. It can be just as complex so take the necessary steps to learn about the ways of that reality. Read up on it. There are many techniques and countless books written on it.

Getting to know this landscape is not an easy thing to do unless there is sufficient practice and study involved. And I will point out that anyone who fails to do this- expecting to learn it all at once or in one night from working with this plant is basically expecting the impossible. Not a very fair expectation to place upon the plant to carry out all the work.

And too many people have trapped themselves into thinking the more alkaloids the better opportunities and deeper experience, but early on, I have found this to be false. There were times when I had even more outstanding results working with it in other capacities other than ingesting the alkaloids. I realized early on that the experience I gained was not necessarily from alkaloids as much as the occult energies within the plant’s being. This is a living energy, not simply a drug. Many people out there fall into this line of thinking and this will ensnare you.

Some might argue that perhaps they might have an easier time by taking a hallucinogenic dose, but that doesn’t necessarily leave you with any more of an advantage over being there every night when you sleep, and it is much more dangerous. Because of the nature of how a hallucinogenic dose of tropane alkaloids work on the brain, most people would not remember why they even took them to begin with. This is because when you are under its spell, the flow of acetylcholine is drastically reduced to the point where memories are barely being formed and in the short term you are operating at a much more basic capacity. This is why it has gained so much favor among criminals using it to take advantage of people. Once they are under the spell of such a large dose, they don’t have the line of reason or critical thinking that is present when acetylcholine is acting in its normal capacity. This leaves the person operating at a very minimal level, just as we are in the sleep process.

We have the ability to fly every night when we are in the dream state, but how many of you actually remember that you want to fly when you are in that dream?  You would if you could remember to, but you always forget that you want to and have very little control over yourself in the dream. Because you have to take time and learn the necessary steps to learn how to become self aware in this state in order to navigate and operate within it even at the most basic levels. This takes practice. There are many techniques and countless books written on it.

This would essentially be the same result if you were to take a hallucinogenic dose of nightshade alkaloids, given that you don’t overdose, most of you would forget what you came there to do. And upon awakening if you did not take note of the experience, you would many times forget most of the experience as time went on, just as you would have done if it was a dream. It works on memory in much the same way.

I point this out because a good number of people who want to experiment with this plant at hallucinogenic doses do not understand the difficulties that arise and come with using it in such a way. They don’t fully grasp the mechanism of how it acts on the brain and therefore do not see it in a realistic light. These are not like other hallucinogens such as mushrooms, LSD, or even DMT. They are much more complicated and troublesome to work with in that type of application. Its not advisable to try to work in such capacity, unless you have gotten to know the plant slowly over a time- such as a number of years. Working with this plant calls for a lot of patience and careful attention. There is simply no way to fast track it and expect beneficial results.

What I offer with my products is to begin to work with it in a lighter capacity where you can start to get to know the plant without all the dangers of its deeper teachings. It really comes down to setting a foundation and building from there, which goes for all areas of practice. You can’t expect to operate a highly advanced machine without starting on more basic forms of it.

But even with all that said, the ointments are still highly effective in the Nightshade ointmentvarious ways one can work with it. I find them exceptional in forming trance states and anything that requires a great deal of attention or care. They have an excellent way of allowing you to slip into that fluid state of mind we use in meditation, automatic writing, interpretation of abstract ideas or dreams, and amplifying intuition and inner being.

it isn’t t very fair or realistic to expect the plant to do all the work and expect the same as someone who has a good deal of practice and experience in that arena, or someone who has gotten to know the plant slowly over time. It just isn’t a very realistic outcome to arrive at because you cannot fast track these abilities. There is a give-and-take relationship with this plant spirit, not a take-and-take relationship. Forming this relationship means that the plant also gets to know and trust you. I find that like mother nature, she can be cruel in her teachings when the proper approach or attention is not given. And I don’t say any of this to be negative or to deter anyone from pursuing these sacred plants. I’m trying to give you honest, worthwhile, practical advice that I learned from many hours of research, contemplation, study, and devotion to. Something you can constructively use.  Working with these plants just takes time, dedication, patience, care, and honesty.

This is a plant of Saturn, which represents the harvest of life’s work coming into fruition, showing you the results of what you worked to create. You could call this karma, divine retribution, or what have you. It is a force in which comes to reap what you have sown, be it positive or negative. The mind is like the garden of our thinking patterns, in which action and circumstance is reflected in the fruits of our labor. Those that take the time to practice, and devote a careful study of, will see fruits that reflect that. Those that do not tend to this metaphorical garden with care, respect, or accommodations to the growing needs will see the fruits produce disease and rot.

Those that keep going, working to understand the essence of the plant and its teachings,  will be blessed with experiences and revelations that make any disappointing times worth it. When each secret is revealed it serves to remind one why they did the work to begin with. It makes it all worth while.

Datura metel

Those that expect the world and then some from this plant without doing much in the practice of your own work, don’t expect this plant to do a whole lot for you, lest you become heavily disappointed. I’m sorry to say this but I’m just being honest. As I said before, there is a give-and-take relationship with this plant. Working with this plant is not really about working with alkaloids. Its working with a living energy. Some will have tread tirelessly and still fail to grasp this core principle, but those that take the time and try, it will arrive and welcome you. Shamanism and spiritual practice is much about the give-and-take relationship we form with our Earth, a living being or conscious energy. And this paradigm is no different when working with this plant.

I don’t make these products for the sole purpose of making $. I do a lot better with other endeavors. And sometimes I feel this is more a hassle than its worth, but for now, I continue to do this for the few that want to take the time to study and learn about this sacred plant. Because working with these plants is almost a forgotten practice. Sure there are those that jump on-board for a short while as it occupies a passing phase or interest in their mind, but for a great many it will always remain just that – a passing phase that comes and goes.

There will only be a handful of devotees that actively search to find the sacredness of what these plants hold. Strengthened by the fact that in today’s world and society, there is not much that is sacred anymore, and what do I mean by sacred? I mean not too many will to take the time to learn the depths of such wonderful things.

It might be held in high regard just as long as they don’t have to make much of an effort to understand it. Once the plant spirit engages and tests them with fair amount of work, no longer will the plant be sacred enough to pursue. Not too many will take the time and study to work on their own spiritual development because let me repeat- it is WORK.  There will be a great many that demand all the benefits of the plant’s teachings without any time in practice or study towards it.

It is unfortunate because this is basically the foundation of all spiritual development. Learning patience, humility, overcoming adversity, gaining insight, changing one’s behaviors to move beyond the current level, and all the in between. Much of the mystical lore that draws most people into the Occult unfortunately does so for more of an escapist bent. All of our spiritual journeys were meant to in some way benefit our character, knowledge, or wisdom. But also benefit the world we live in. The world demands a give-and-take relationship and we are tested by it at every step. Herein lies the timeless wisdom present in every age- making true initiates few and far between.

It is for these principles that I keep the fruits of my work up for study and exploration. This is the give-and-take I have committed to. A sacrifice of tireless effort that does not always benefit me, and sometimes even creates more than I want to deal with. It is the relationship I have formed with this plant, who called me here years ago at a time when I wasn’t even looking for it. But nonetheless, it was a call I took with seriousness and responsibility. It goes beyond just me. It is this fire that shall keep burning, so the dedicated few keep rekindling the dying flames of wisdom for all time to come, going to great lengths to keep it from extinguishing forever…

There are many techniques and countless books written on it.

 

Forbidden Fruits & Primitive Pleasures: The Powerful Aphrodisiac Qualities of the Nightshade Family

Forbidden Fruits & Primitive Pleasures:

The Powerful Aphrodisiac Qualities of the Nightshade Family
Aphrodisiac qualities of Datura innoxia
Opening of Datura innoxia Flower

The mysterious & alluring nightshade plants have been interacting with our species for thousands of years. From the earliest records of human history we find their alliance with man. In all times and in every corner of the Earth we find that man has used the plant in some capacity for so many diverse reasons. Whether in herbal medicine, shamanism, in nefarious or benevolent application, we see this plant surface again and again.

One of the less explored applications of this plant is in the realm of aphrodisiacs and romantic endeavors. The aphrodisiac qualities of the nightshade family are described as deeply erotic, passionate energies. It allows one to dial in to the core of this erotic, sensual energy. With that said, do not rely on an aphrodisiac to bring on the experience on its own. The aphrodisiac is not supposed to hold up the experience, but to aid your primitive sexual energies into engagement so that you create this rich experience.

An aphrodisiac is an external component to enhance the internal force of our sexual nature and sensual passion involving its activities. It is this force of energy, latent within us by nature, pushing us to unify with another person, generally being of the opposite sex, but of course this not a hard-fast rule and can be equally applied to 2 of the same sex. An aphrodisiac will act on one of our five senses in such a way as to electrify our sexual desires. Usually, this is done to enhance for the male- the core aspects of the female, or enhance for the female- the core aspects of the male.

love: a latent drive for Complete Being

Aphrodisiac qualities of the nightshade plants

It is generally these two energies, the active masculine principle with the passive feminine principle, unite to form a complete whole. And It can be equally applied to any combinations of just one of these principles. But at a basic level, it is this coming together of forms that brings us closer to our divine origins. This as well being part of the mechanism responsible to bring a new life into the world- ensuring survival for our species. In the act of union, we feel the presence of complete being, The height of this process brings us to a state of bliss at the doors of Nirvana, where we are transported into the dimension of timeless being, even if for only a few moments.

From my studies and research of ancient texts and esoteric principles of various cultures or religions, I believe that before we incarnate in a physical existence we are in a more complete form, more connected to the ocean of oneness we share at our source. We have dual aspects of male (active) and female (passive) principle in one form. When we take form in the physical body, we are forced to lose one half of our complete form in order to assume this existence. We still have some degree of the other principle but it is lacking compared to the non-physical realm. However, I wouldn’t say that this male-female principle is a hard-fast rule as there are also cases where this does not apply in that combination, and this is only a general analysis.

Perhaps this lacking became necessary for multiple reasons. It gave us the drive toward growth so that we use it to become more than what we are at the present. It also gives the species what it needs to continue on and survive. And lastly it gives us a glimpse into the interconnected nature and oneness between us- our common origin and divine source.

Sexual energy can be approached for different needs and different purposes, But even just for its own sake- the pursuit of eroticism and sexual pleasure can at the very least enhance our appreciation and enjoyment of the limited time we have in this life. We find meaning, passion, and depth through a deep experience with another person, in the pursuit of energies that fill us with vitality and appreciation for life.

Aphrodisiacs: feeding A primitive desire

aphrodisiacs and the fire withinThe use of aphrodisiacs, while not meant to bring on the experience alone, works as a tool to enhance our physical and emotional senses, antagonize our sexual passions, and push us as deep into the experience as we can get. Since we use the physical body as the source of our senses, aphrodisiacs become the external element that aide us into the journey up to that climatic peak. To drive our sense of sexual need and desire over the edge  and into that timeless state of fulfillment.

Of all the different things that come to mind when the average person thinks of an aphrodisiac, very few today understand about the aphrodisiac qualities in the nightshade plants and their rich history. These ancient plants have been used in the pursuit of love and romantic endeavors for hundreds of years at every corner of the globe. They can be used in different ways to act on different senses, making the aphrodisiac qualities far-reaching.

Many times the nightshade family can be used in combination with other known aphrodisiacs like marijuana or hashish, opium, wine, and other substances. In Asia, they took what was known as Oriental Joy Pills, a blend of opium, hemp products, datura seeds, and spices. “The combinations yield effective psychoactive aphrodisiacs that activate the nervous system in several places simultaneously (Ratsch 2003).  Other popular combinations have used nightshade herbs macerated in alcohol as an aphrodisiac drink. Others prefer to smoke nightshade plants with marijuana or hashish, where the two work in synergy producing heavy arousal.

The plants can be used like a drug or substance for effects on the mind and physical body. In this context it is not necessary to take them in large or even semi-large doses. It doesn’t make it more effective and too big a dose will work against the desired result. I probably don’t have to point out that a hallucinogenic dose would kill the experience, and good luck making up for that with a new partner!

Aphrodisiac scent of Angel's Trumpet
Angel’s Trumpet flower

Another way it can be used as an aphrodisiac is as a fragrance, a seductive scent from the blooming flowers of the Angel’s Trumpet or Datura. The scent of these two are exceptional and pleasant. They have been used as a base in perfumes and if you look around I’m sure you could find one. I can’t overstate how pleasant and alluring the scent of Datura and Angel’s Trumpet are on the senses. It makes a superior scent for perfume and a woman wearing the scent of angel’s trumpet or datura would have my undivided attention with no trouble.

“The flowers and leaves [of Brugmansia suaveolens] are also commonly used as aphrodisiacs, and indeed, just the smell of the plant may bring on potent aphrodisiac effects.”

“In Colombia, it is said that the mere scent of Brugmansia suaveolens [Angel’s Trumpet] brings deep sleep and intensely erotic dreams.”

Aphrodisiac qualities of Datura
Seedpod of Datura stramonium var. inermis

Another capacity the nightshade plants can be used is in the form of a charm or talisman. This means that you might use it in the same way you would carry something sentimental or ‘lucky’ object to bring the associated qualities with it. It is said that a plant will reveal its uses through its essential qualities, colors, physical appearances, etc. which will take the appearance of what part of the human body or purpose it is associated with and works on. For example, the datura seedpod looks very much like the male sexual organ, symbolic of the phallus. While the angel’s trumpet and Datura innoxia flower resemble the female parts, symbolic of the yoni or vulva. Charms work by the law of association, to bring likened energies into being for associated purposes.

In the Old Testament of the Judaeo-Christian pantheon, there is an example of this in Genesis Chapter 30 where Rachel asks Leah for her son’s mandrakes. As she has numerous difficulties bearing a child it would make sense that in this context, it seems to implicate the mandrake root being used as a fertility charm to bring forth children. It is also possible that it was taken as an aphrodisiac drug for this purpose. But seeing how there were recurring problems with fertility, I would think the former seems to be more plausible.

Aphrodisiac qualities of Mandrake
young Mandrake plant

Of all the nightshade plants out there, none may be more recognized and associated with love and sexual endeavors than the mandrake, Mandragora officianarum. Mandrake is a native of the Mediterranean. While the plant is not as striking in appearance as her siblings, none has been more associated with romance. Mandrake has long been associated with Aphrodite, the Greek Goddess of Love. In fact they referred to the fruits of mandrake as “the Golden Apples of Aphrodite”

“Some evidence exists that the mandrake was used in secret mystical rites in ancient Israel; one of the factors supporting this hypothesis is the significance of the mandrake in Kabbalism as a symbol for “becoming one.” Similarly, in ancient Egypt it appears that mandrake fruits may have been eaten as aphrodisiacs.  The ancient Greeks also used the mandrake as a sacred love plant. Records left by the botanist Theophrastus indicate that there was an elaborate ritual even for its collection, enacted under the auspices of the love goddess Aphrodite.  Elephants have even been observed eating mandrake directly before copulation (Ratsch 1998. 348-349).”

aphrodisiac qualities of Solandra and Crazy Kieri
Solandra grandiflora

Solandra grandiflora is widely used in Mexico, as an aphrodisiac and love potion. Traditional folk wisdom believes that by giving a man a decoction made from the flowers and roots of the Cup of Gold (Solandra), he will be driven to the lady that is most loved in his heart. The love potion will increase his sex drive, bringing out his animalistic nature, and they even warn that this potion can create excessive sex drive and cause a man to die by completely ‘drying’ him out (Ratsch 1998, 475).”

Aphrodisiac qualities of Datura metel
Datura metel

“In Varanasi, Shiva’s sacred city, Datura metel fruits and rose flowers are made into sacrificial ceremonial garlands for the lord of inebriation and sold to pilgrims, then left as offering at the entryways to his temples. These Datura chains are devoutly placed around the lingam, the deity’s phallic-shaped image, as fresh flowers are tossed over the top of it (Ratsch 1998, 204).”

These plants take various forms around the world but with similar constituents. The plants contain tropane alkaloidsatropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine, with many secondary alkaloids similar to those three, in different ratios and variations thereof.

Aphrodisiac Nightshade Spirit

There also lies within the plant a unique spirit or personality. Described as an intense, seductive quality that gives the plant its pronounced feminine spirit. It’s been said by different cultures, throughout different times, that these plants have a spirit or essence, a seducing feminine quality with an overbearing power to it. Shamanism understands all things to be embedded with a consciousness, an essence or spirit. So while you might hear the plant referred to as ‘she’ it is only symbolic to represent the passive qualities of the feminine force inherent in the plant’s being.

Aphrodisiac Flying OintmentThe seductive, alluring, and mysterious qualities of plants like belladonna, datura, angel’s trumpet, and other siblings, make it a highly enjoyable and effective aphrodisiac to work with. The most effective way to use it as an aphrodisiac is in the form of an ointment that can be applied to the body, directly to the sexual organs, or both. I sell and an original variety of different nightshade ointments, all of which can be used as aphrodisiacs.  (see Crazy Kieri, Flying Oil #5)

“During the course of human history, numerous ointments have been developed for medicinal, cosmetic, erotic, and aphrodisiac purposes. The most famous of these are the flying ointments and witches’ ointments, which appear to have been psychoactive lubricants with aphrodisiac effects. (Ratsch 485)”

Crazy Kieri OintmentThe psychoactive side of it will be subtle but very pronounced and interactive. There will be a slight sedative or calming effect. Paradoxically, there may present a strong stimulating quality at the same time.

“Henbane oil can be made by boiling the leaves of the plant in oil. This can then be used for therapeutic or erotic massage purposes (Ratsch 1998, 279).”

Along with these two aspects there is a third more hidden component that lies at the core of the essence and personality of these plants. Hard to pinpoint with words, but I would say somewhere in the realm of its seductive lore, an overbearing intensity and aura of mystery that seems to follow in the wake of every activity this plant gets involved with.

Mystery is a highly seductive force. It fills the mind with need and desire to know. It gives you just enough information to work with and then leaves you wishing to know more. A need to know all those answers you don’t have. It leaves you in a state of depletion that desires to absorb that which is missing. A craving you can appreciate only when you know there is a chance to fill that depletion.

Aphrodisiac qualities of Datura

For example, Let’s say there is someone you have a crush on, someone you may not know exceptionally well. But there exists a strong attraction for that person and yet you really don’t know a whole lot about them. Sometimes we are more pulled in by this person, not by what we know about them, but rather by what we don’t know about them. That attraction is fed by this mystery and wonder the imagination generates to fill in the blanks. So in effect, what you have is a small attraction based on appearance and the few things you do know being magnified to a large degree by an aura of mystery leading your imagination to fantasize and daydream about those unknowns. This leaves the mind unfulfilled and yearning to know.  It engages the mind into pursuit; a state where feeding the mystery creates this magnetic seduction in need of fulfillment.

It is this character that lies within the occult or hidden aspects of the nightshade family. It seduces the mind inward and generates our biggest aphrodisiac of all- the imagination. It is this context of the plant’s essence that works in synergy with sexual energy. You put these elements in motion with a sedating physical relaxation and stimulating sexual desire. This brings out the aphrodisiac quality of sexual potential and when used in the pursuit of love or romantic endeavors can have lasting results and some really worthwhile memories. 😉

 

 

Sources:

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AGRIPPA, H. C. (2018). THREE BOOKS OF OCCULT PHILOSOPHY. S.l.: LLEWELLYN

Brugmansia suaveolens – Angel’s Trumpet. (2013, February 12). Retrieved November 01, 2017, from http://entheology.com/plants/brugmansia-suaveolens-aromatic-angels-trumpet/

Datura innoxia – Toloache. (2013, February 05). Retrieved November 01, 2017, from http://entheology.com/plants/datura-innoxia-toloache/

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Haydock, G. L., Husenbeth, F. C., OReilly, B., Challoner, R., & OReilly, B. (1884). The Holy Bible: containing the entire canonical Scriptures, according to the decree of the Council of Trent: translated from the Latin Vulgate, diligently compared with the Hebrew, Greek, and other editions, in divers languages: the Old Testament first published by the English College at Douay, A.D. 1609, and the New Testament by the English College at Rheims, A.D. 1582: with useful notes, critical, historical, controversial and explanatory. St. John, N.B.: Earle Publishing House.

Mandragora officinarum – Mandrake. (2013, February 12). Retrieved November 01, 2017, from http://entheology.com/plants/mandragora-officinarum-mandrake/

Muller-Ebeling, C., Ratsch, C., & Storl, W. (2003). Witchcraft medicine: healing arts, shamanic practices, and forbidden plants. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions.

Ratsch, C. (2005). The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press.

Ratsch, C., & Muller-Ebeling, C. (2013). The encyclopedia of aphrodisiacs: psychoactive substances for use in sexual practices. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press.

Solandra grandiflora – Chalice Vine. (2013, February 13). Retrieved November 01, 2017, from http://entheology.com/plants/solandra-grandiflora-chalice-vine/

Wink, M., & Wyk, B. V. (2008). Mind-altering and poisonous plants of the world. Portland: Timber.